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δ֪ ԴӦд ʱ2005-12-29¹վ

Үˡչ˼[3]  
ʱ䣺 2003-12-21  ߣ  
    ڡ۴ԡϷˡҮչ˼롱ġۡдꡰƪ ͡ƪʶνƪԳһ塣ṩġƪֻõһġ١ˡչһгӦĵѧ˵ǹҮ˺ڡ޶˹ۡѧݱΪڡƽȡѧǹҮһֱ(70дɡʱͷʾ)ĵ顣ڹҮ(Լص塱ͳ)ɡǼֵƽȡֻǴԵֶΣڼֵϵСһļֵǹġƽȡ⣬̽άɵġʱ塣Ǵӷѧ(߸˹﷢չı֤)۹⿴ǹġеġɡʱDzò֮ġŹϵҮ˶Դ´ͳ̬ȣڲϿǰìܵġҿڹҮϵìܡòչ޶˹ϵ޶˹͹Ү˶ơмſѧ֪µѧѾڡձ泡ԭ롰ԡ֮ĽŹϵڹҮһ࣬ǿǴԵ? Դͳġԡconformity)޶˹һ࣬ǿǸ촫ͳڸ崴ԵĿͼһŹϵתɡ塱롰ԡ֮ĽŹϵۡһתŶԡ֪롰С֮ϵӣȷе˵Ƕԡ֪СһѧӣŶĮǼū۴ͳƫ롣һƫ벻òŷ½ѧͳԵ˾νͨѧͳĿġͨͱ˹ʵйˣҹڡ⡱ֳ˹ġύۡΪƵĹ۵㡣
    

    ѡг(ǽнij)롰¡(ơ塱¡)ͬһĿۣ֮һǿгµһԡǿгµ෴ԡڵڶȫͬ(1)ĻһгƱ߽⴫ͳֵ߽ĵ»¿˺ķ(EDurkheim)ġִԡ۰˵(2)(nihilism)һͳֵġֵֵûɵģDZġ֮Աͳ»еļֵۡ(reevaluationg of all values)ΪˡӦΪ´ͳκΡͳֵū෴»򡰼ֵ֮мֵΪǰ澺бǿ(FNietºche)ġִԡ۰˵

    йѧ߶г˵пԿĵһַȻͬ(1)гΪȡΪһûбҪ۵͵»߽⡣Ϊг(ÿһ׷ơij)Ѿ˵¡硰ǵЧ塯(intelligent utilit arianism)Ϊÿһ׷ĸˣԤȫ˽ΪΪԼͻתȡ׷ͬȸȨνβĵۡеĺԡڵѧʷϣ(JBentham)ܶ(JSMill)һҪ(2)ǿгΪΪ֮IJԣǿȫͬΪ֮šŹϵ(tension)ǿֽŹϵȫܽг롰¡һԷͬʱսᾭ÷չ롰ͬͳµľ򣬻״̬µľûң߶ǡ塱ڵѧʷϣҮ(F. Hayek)ġչ˼һҪ֮һֵעǣ(J. Buchanan)90ļ? УֳԵġҮ򡱡Լijֱڡ?/P> 

    һǿʼгµĹϵʵϾѾΧơִԡ(modernity)չһʵϣӿҪ˼ǵ˵ڽеĢۡгԶſʼػ۵ijʱĽ׶Σǵһͬʱʱ뾭֮ѿڲϵѸšiϵΣ(1)ŵġ顱ѿγˡֲšŲ[ƵؽȥʱΣб㿪ʼҰչΣ(2)ŵġ顱ѿʹڱ仯Уת˲ŵĸУѰ㲻Ķ(C.PBaudelaire)ƴΪִСܡʶκΡ㡱ֻǻþʱ򣬡ϵˡΣзˡҰΣ(crisis of the transcendence)ΣУǰһձģ׵ģûо˼ΣйνԤڡ͡ǰѡΣǰסɡֲ70ıĹڡ͡ɳۣڡ롰ˡѧڷչΣһ棬Σ뷢չΣȣǸģ׵ģ˼(reflective)Σе˶(1iw߶d)з˼Ӷе˶ųΣȻdzΣչ(Ĵ׷³׵Ļ)ܽȫԱ塱(nonGorattrap)߽ĵ»

    ƪҽҪ֤ĵһµĵڶҲһֱֵѧΪκһгöԣ֮Ӧĵ»ǶֵֻģɹҮΪ֮绤һѧĻڷ谭гõķչʱ巢չʷҲ谭гõķչ(Τ̵¹淶Խѹ)ʽĵͬӦгõķչΪɱۣȻǰ;ֻ𣬻߶һмִֵۡɵм縣(M. Foucault)͵(J.Derrrida)ɡȨ־(The Will to Power)ѧߵһֵַ̬ȵľȥ(ΪһֵΪֵͲɱزˡƶigbѹԡ)ôʽġǵЧ塱ѧǷ룺гӦ?!ڣ÷չԽˡڵġ±׶Ρ֮ǵЧúϻᷢķ硣Dzڼ򵥵ڡԡΡСƷ֮ѡҴﵽЧй? Ŀ׷Ӻö?Aristotle)йʳ֪衱Ĺ۵㡣Ҳ˵ʵֵľ޴죬ΪѧɵĹ۵㿴統˹(Maslow)۵ġҼֵʵ֡(self actualization)ΪЧúռҪλԺ׷Ҹ󻯵ѡͻصġⲿЧ(ڽڵӰԺſʾԷӳ衰ϵۡϵӰƬڹչ죻ڡҡ͡չйҡ֮ڻ뷢չ)仰˵÷չԽ˳׶ԺԱԸֲͬĻֵԼֵѡ⣬ڸԵļֵѡ֮ijַʽ½ͼݡЧִ֮⼰ӦĵΣΪЧġơԸֵΪ䡰Ч󻯡ǰġЧѧĶ棬ִ֮һġȺ塱Ӱ˵ЧѧƶȺ֮ԷгԭΪŸֵֻ֮䲻ܴ½ͼݢݣߵһȥˡ

    Үŵģһ˺ڵIJ˼ĵѧҰչҮ˱˵ļ֮Ϊڡݽ¡(evolutionarymorality)ѧޡݽǿǵµġݽԡ(evolutionality)ڳϸֵֻ֮ĽŹϵŴʹֽŹϵԽת͵(һµĵڶѧ)ſܿǸ´ͳģʹ´ͳݱĶ
    ⡰ĺ

    ڶҪ˼봫ͳĵ˵(moral discourse)Уռλõ˵(ո[Socrates]ѧ[Vedas]Ϳ׷)ǿ֪(to know)(to practice)Ĺϵߡһ˼άʽͳȾǿӰ졣ѿ(RDescartes)׷֪ʶġȷԡ(evidence)ʼѧ˼϶ϵ۵ĴԣӶҵһеµij㡣´ʹ֪ʶΪܵġ顱ʵԡӢ˼봫ͳռģѧ(ӵΪһ֡о[moralsense])ҲͬʼԶԾʵ׷ʡѧ簬Ү(AJAyer)ڵάظ˹̹(LWittgenstein)ܹ֮ϵġԡҲʼԶָƵľʵĿȷԡΪLhׯӵơѧ(existential aesthetics)ʶۺǿġй˼봫ͳеҪӰ죬ӱʶ۵ѧߴӡ֪˼άʽй˼봫ͳеλԽЩܴŲͬ˼봫ͳ֮IJ죬Ȼòϣһֵ˵Ҫռλãͱش֪⡣

    ѧ֮Աش֪⣬ԭڣһܡ֪˶ԣڡѡ񡱡˹(AGewirth)˵һʯͷν¡ġ˹˵ԡ֪ʶ⡱(knowledgequestion)Ϊĵѧԡ⡱(the Beingquestion)Ϊĵѧ6漰ij֪֡ϵ(cognitive relationship)ࡣһеһ·˺ȣǸ·˲ֱܷ桤һǷʵģҲܹΪԼɶպͽڶ̶ϸˮߵĸ(йƵʵ£·˴Ӹߴ£ٺͯڷdzdzˮУ˵ײ𵴣̱)ûΪȡDzΪκεѡ񶼱ΪܹʶΪΪѡ񡣡ҲֻΪΪĺ֪ij̶(ˡ񡱣κ˶ܴﵽȫ֪)ΪӦе΢ᡣ仰˵µġ(Categorical Imperatives)֮ЧҪÿһΪλϵ˶ij(situatio n)ͬȳ̶ȵġ֪ǾͲ߼Ƴÿһһ϶Ӧжձһ(universality)Ϊǻ˹Կµġ־͡(deonto1ogy)ѧһҪ䡡ձһԵΪֻǷҪġһԡһǡáΪžձ顣һԵġɱΪʹ(Լ֤ɱIJ)ջ˹ԿµIJ䣬ÿһɱԼѵﷸ˶Ӧܾ˵ѵIJ֮Ϊÿһ˶ԡ֪һɱ˷ʱԾ˵ʵôΪձһԽձġ塱ձġһȻȿԼһѵĽ͡áöࡣ

    Ȼ뿪µġձһԡԭԺǵĵѧ˸ֱӵʵ(෴±Լġձ塱͡ϡĵѧʼԻشһλḾŮĵѣ¶˺ߵ)ڸʱ˵ΪˡΡΡֻǿնĹʽʲôطõʵԵĵݣܹṩκʵʵָ11ݡҲΪ뿪˿µġնĹʽǵĵѧò磺ʲôǺ?͡ʲô?ʵ(substantive questions)ջ˹⣬ѧǣ(1)Ȩ(authoritative question)ΪʲôΪӦ˵?ΪʲôΪҪӵ?ԼƵ⡣(2)(distributive question)ʲô˵ΪӦǵ?˵УΪӦȿЩ˵?ԼƵ⡣(3)ʵ(substantive question)ЩӦԿǵ?ЩӦԿǵ?ԼƵ⡣漰ġ塱͡áֱڻ˹˵ķʵ⡣

    뿪µġձһԡԭԺǽ˷dzѵģĿǰȻûнȻϣľءԻ˹ĵѧ̫Ϳѣ˭֮?ֵ?ͬɿ£Ըǿߵı

    ֪ھȷѧڿǷdz͹۵ġʶIJͬɾ޴IJɵ͵IJ죬߼ʹγɾ޴죬Ҳᵼ¹ʶ߽⡣Ȼ֪ʵʶ֮γɣҲòγɾ޴IJ졣һĸ׶ʧĺӣһȰοҪżʣй?ô֪ҵĸ?ೡϣȷ(the right reasoning)޼µġ̫ԣҪ۱˵ļֵ?롰۵Ͷ롱(evaluative commitment)Ͷ뵽Ҫ۵ļֵĽɫĹؼǡͶ롱Ȼ̫Ǻܼ˽մԶ޷ŮԵĸܣԶ޷˵ĸܣԶ޷й˵ĸܣԶ޷ĸܣȵġɽԡȻʵȷʵھ޴Ľɫܲ졣ָĽõĸ?仰˵ûκֶοԡͶ롱õĽɫȥġ

    һ֡ɽԡ(incommunicability)˹ĵʵԭǵ߸ԵġΪµġձһԡҪһõġ塱ΪǶÿһԸɫͬȳ̶ȵġ֪˶Զǡõġ塱ΪɽʹձһԲòͬԱͬɫͬ壬С֮ڣӶɥʧ˿ϵġԡ(morality)(ÿ˶ӦĿġ)

    άĵѧɽԡһ̫ǿļ衣Ӧ֮һʵĴӶԸǿļ衣Ҳȡ(Agnes Heller)ġ(human condition)[12]յĵѧкĴѧӡǡԵѧҪIJ˹вͬѧɷIJ棺(1)(interpretative aspect)͹۽͡¡ں(2)淶(normative aspect)شڸֳ¡Ӧж(3)Ǣ(educativetherapeuticaspect)ںտӺҪĵѧݣǵԸӶʹǻøӷϵ£ͬʱοԻøáܻ˹뺣յ⺭ǵķΧһȻԴΪ۵ĵ(3)ڻ˹ġȨԡ⡣Ϊһϣøá۵ĵ(2)ڻ˹ġ䡱⡣ΪġӦȻΪ漰Ӷл˹ġ䡱ʡ󣬺յĵ(1)ڻ˹ġʵԡ⡣ȻĶӦϸġǶ˵۲໥ȡرֵעǺյѧֳġۡӰ졣ϣԿµѧƫҪȻ˹Զöࡣ

    ΪߵĺտڡżȻԶ׵һضһ棬ÿһijֻϵԡˣÿһ˶Ϊһض˱뵽һضġضСǰ(a prtori)˼ǧǧضĸض֮ܵУһǰض˵ĸ˱һżȻ¼Ͷ뵽һǰض˵ɴ˿ʼ()(destiny)ضŬԼ̵˫صǰżȻתɡҾԡ(selfdetermination)͡ԡ(determination)һŬĹ̾νɳ(growing up)Ĺ̡հֽ˫صǰżȻת˫صĺ(Ҿĺ)˵ġʷԡ(historicity)ʷеĸ壬˼⣬ʱʱܵǰĸǰ֮IJЭǸʷԡֱΪԡ塪ᡱŹϵ顣ܹضȫΪ淶ڻԼУӶٸֽܵŹϵͨԼķ͵õµ塱Ӷϴijƽ⣬סճ鵽ġᡱŹϵѰҡ塱ĹУ˹ڡҡʶγɶڡ硱Ĺۡ塱ĹͬʱҲǸġ֪̣塰ɳĹ̡

    ǵĵѧij㡭ʶselfconsciousness)γɹʱĹ۵ȴǴѧϣǸӽ׵(GHMead)Ϊۡ׵Լġ˵ǣڸڰԼλ۹⿴Լʱ飬ЩʾͬʱҲʾʾԼĶ[13]ĸ׺ӤԵһЦʹ˫ϳ˶ԷĴڡ֮䡰ľ顱(shared experience)һС塱Ļκ£ǰᡣ

    ŵľ顱һ۵ĶӦ˵ʻĺ塣ҲɡҪǿģǴڲͬǶȵĸͬһ鴾飬ָͬһ¼ָͬһ¼ĴӲͬǶȵ顣ˡһܱ塰ڡʣͬʱDzӦʵġһ棬Ӣԭ˫غ壬պ˸ڴͳе˫ʡ
    ΣӦ塰ҡʵĺ塣һغǡϵģǡ֪ԷıҪԡһ塣һɥʧ˼˵ɥʧˡҡڶغǡ֪ϵģǡҡչɳıҪҡΪǴݱǶС塱ĶκΡ䡱ֻܼסĶЩĶڡĶ(ʹࡱһ壬ʹļ޷)غǡڡڡϵģǡʶıҪҡֻܹͨġҡκڡҡ(׵µĻ)ĸΪι̣ĸ׺ͳ֮һ¼ӤľʹԽ衱ҡļȵ֮ϵ
    ΣӦ塰ҡʵĺ塣һغǡϵģǡ֪ԷıҪԡһ塣һɥʧ˼˵ɥʧˡҡڶغǡ֪ϵģǡҡչɳıҪҡΪǴݱǶС塱ĶκΡ䡱ֻܼסĶЩĶڡĶ(ʹࡱһ壬ʹļ޷)غǡڡڡϵģǡʶıҪҡֻܹͨġҡκڡҡ(׵µĻ)ĸΪι̣ĸ׺ͳ֮һ¼ӤľʹԽ衱ҡļȵ֮ϵĸľʹԽһӵһµIJϵġҡ硣

    Ӧָ˴ӡۡҡҪDzԱ֤ҡĴڵģܡҡĴҪҪŵȿ(RNozick)ۡҡʵʱһҪҡһ顰塱ȶ(stable unity)ȶĺĮ(DHume)屾(A Schopenhauer)۵ġʱıϵ[14]ĸס֮ǡҡĸףһҪͳȶ롰ҡļĽϵӶҡѡĸסͨİҵĹ·ˡ

    ŵѧ(ĺ)ǴѧҶԡԡʶͼƵһʺԵĵ»ԭ15ݡ˼봫ͳУԴӵѿѧע⵽ԡһ̶ĸĻͳ߼졣Щӡԡۿʼ˵ѧڵѧ˵УرǾ60ѧѬ֮𽥱Խܡ

    ڡҡۣΪ˳֪ij㣬ӶԱӹ̶ġԡĹŵʽĵ˵ѧԵ˼ҪĹڣʹţԡĿˡԡ˫żȻ֮±ضض˵ġʷԡı֣Ǹ̵ġ˫ؾľ(ڵ)˵ġѧĴ緢չԽǸӣ̴ӶԡԽ޶ĿԣѧҲԽǿҡݽ¡ѧų⡰ִѧ˵ͬģǺִ۶ƶֵ֡Դݻ١̬ȡݽ(ǵ¸)ǰ֮һDZеƶȣӶܹ֮Сִ˵(ɵ)ľ֮ڣδԡѧִԡڴ֮ǰһֱɡϵۡеġ

    ڡҡĴѧΪ۵ҵ˵еҪѡˡҡĶ嵱С仰˵ҡDZѿѧ˼ġ׵֧㡱(Archjmedjanp0Int)Ǹ㡣ҡҹ涨вòҡĹ涨Բֻͨʶʶҡѧ˼òϡһ˳ơ()ͨԵģġġͨ⡱ڶ˳ơ͡˳ơңٻһַʽ˵ҡǾгʼԲҸһз˼塣ҡֻͨᲩġ6DZ롱ᣬǴѰ塱ŵұᲩġһ¼ڡҡж֮ǰҵͰյľ¼̣ȡұǸԴͳ(the tradition of reason)ȡǸضչضġʷԡľʵҡֻܷڵǸͳľԡֻеҽͲĻͳеIJʱҲſܷǸͳľ? ԡdz㣬ԡһ̡?/P> 

    ⡱ҵĵѧ˵Ǿ˹ؼʶ۵λΪӿµġձһԡͶʿµġ(good life)ʵ׷˵Ȼش֪⣬϶֮ġԡ(intersubjectivity)Ƿܡѧԡ塱ۼȻѾ϶ˡԡĿԣʣȥһʹԡʵֵĽ̡

    ֮ġ(communication)Զﲻij״̬ôǷͰչŵľ¼?!ǽʶǰ[16]屾˵ȶʹʵõΨһݡΪκһʶһȶġˡ(core)ҿԴԵʹʣΪʹҵĽźš(signal)(õ)ұ뾡ȶԡע⣬ʹõġˡںֱӶӦڲ۵ľˡʵ˵IJ֡

    ΪһڵĽҼ򵥵һ²ۼʲ(JNash)50ڵһݱʼ[17]ֻһҳֽŵıʼУʲɾѧΪġЧú򼯡ǷӦƷһöļҪǣ(1)ɹѡķĸϡȡռġֲ͹ԡ(2)ѡĹ򡭡ѡӡѡռϵġϰԡ(3)ѡӵӳнԻ򡰽ԡЩ£ʲΪȫ岩ߵѡӹһӵġ㼯ϡǴڵġûͨġԡΪij㡣вߵѡӶȫûԵ(ϡѡһԡҪ)ЩԵĸ壬֮IJȴԴﵽij״̬ڸ״̬в߷Եѡж֮ij֡ԡ(Ϊһԡġԡ)Ҳ˵Щܹͬʱõʵ֡ˡԡͨⱻʾߵġζšᡱԳϰԡ

    Ӧע⣬ʲʼĸ֡Լ衱(ѡ񼯺ϵġԣ͹ԣѡӵġԡȵ)ǰġҡжӦڡҡΪȶ塱ûԣҡͳģϵģûġ򡱡ˣʲʼǿԽΪʶԶԣ佻ġ⡱ضڡ

    ڣ(1)ָʾʹΪݡǸӾ״̬ѧϰԼҪģǡ¡Ϊ(2)ÿһѡһ̶Ӱʵ֡ӶܹԼ̡
    ĺ

    г(market society)ǽᡣгΪԤ˲뽻еĽġ(intension)һԡ(intensionality)ڵǰǸͶֹרҵĺôֹרҵҪģĺ18ݡ󣬵汻׷ʱԻ𽥰ԼĴڻӷֹרҵתƵȥ

    ĽŹϵڣ(1)ҡΪʵֵҡȨҡĿԡ(2)ҡġҡΪʵҼֵġֶΡɿκν̵ı󶼲ɱ˫Ȩ־֡Ҳ˵ҡġҡū״̬㡰ҡȨ־ڸۣһΪˡʶһµġ컯̡˵־ֻͨūŬ⻯ΪʵūͨΪˡĻܵܶԡڸȨϵı֤˵ֻг˫ƽȨſܷܶ(Ҳ)

    ǶϵϾͬڶִϵʶȻͣڡҰ״̬ūϵȨ־ȻгʱгġȨṹгġȨṹԱ֮ĽԼڽĿܾ״̬оһԵõʵ־ͬȵҪԡڸ¿ȨṹԶȨṹΪ˹˹ʽľڡȨΧڵĽĸȫ޷⡣ 

    ΪִϵĻȻСҰһ棬ͬʱҲչʾˡһ档ʵϣӳġȨ־ݱΪ֪ʶԼڸڡ֪ʶ־(the will to knowledge)֮µġȨ־ⱾѾĹˡ֪־(the will to know)ڱϱάij֡͹ԡΪԡԼʽ˿ռ䣬ͨ˼类ᡱ(Civil society)Ľռ䡣

    ֪ʶĻ۹ͬʱҲ֪ʶĽ̡޵֪ʹ֪ʶȨԡȨ־ܵơ˹˵ȨܵԵԼ⡣һ˵ȨؽܵԵԼͰݽ˼˵Ȩӵ߳Ե()DZԼȨں̶ֳȨ߿ԼȨҪȡڽ˫ʵĶԱȡҲ˵ȨṹȨڶ̶ܵơǸµĿΣ֪ʶÿһĻȨϾܵ˱ơΪ֪ʶĽڸij̶ڽߵġԸԡ(vo1untariness)ǿȨʹǿȨߵõ桱

    ɳġȨ־֪־͡ᡱǵݽһҪڡĵ»ڸ(J. Locke)ġȨϡ(1)(1ife)Ȩ(2)չ䡰ʷԡԼӦ(£ʳס)ȷȨ(liberty)(3)(1)(2)ۼĸͷչȶϡƲȨ(possessions)[19]

    ϵڲȨĽŵ㷺ȺȥУȨĹ淶صġν淶Էɣʽ򡰳ԭ򡯡ʽܵϺͱIJȨԭġԡ(impersonality)Ӷ׵ӦõκȺϵȥ仰˵ҪġձһԡڽϵɳԭµIJȨʵֵġ˵ǰƽʱȻ˵һʵûһʵһ״̬ϾǴӿµġձһԡԭ򵼳ҪԳԭʽһ˵IJȨôһʶ̬ͿԱȽ׵չûôһʶ̬ͱȽԴӼͥʹׯСΧչ¡ĴΧ

    ԣչڡձһԡԭڶ̶ϱʶұȨԵԭ(categoricalѵǶԡȨ?)

    һ棬ӽзֹԱܶչϵҪơ֪ʶġԡġɡ20ʹ

    ζŵĶԽ˫ĺôյ˫նԷԼġ߼ʹסԴԷǰģ硰ŵڡԱ𡱣塱ȵȸӲԴЧʵ׼򡣡гƽɡϣǿΪʲôոѧϲǿõӰ족(civilizing influence of the economy)

    ڽеȻ᲻ϻµIJƸµȨµIJƽȸ֣ϵռλȻǿµġձһԡԭֻҪǿȨάֽϵIJȨƶȴݻ٣;ķչͱȻ㹻ġDZʹûָϵԽԽΪɿܵѡ

    ǣڡǿȨ롰ԡĶԿУгӦĵѧšԡܹǿȨڡĽŹϵУ𽥴ӡūϵƽȹϵչ
    ġݽ

    »ǹڡơ塱µij(statement)֮ԼʵȫȡԳ̶Լʶ(moral consciousness)[21]ھУֻ֮ҪչҮ˵ĿǵԳ̶ˡཻʵݽݽġԽǽӽԭʼ״̬ʶԵ»ԼľԽ󡡷ʷ޶(Herodotus)¼˹ʿ(Darius)ԶٽǮΪ۶޷ϣ˳ĸʬ壻ͬЩ߽ĸʬԵӡŻ丸ĸʬʱ⵽ǿӲơҲˡ׽ɡ(ԸҪ)ƲȨ֮⣬κΪ׼ϣŴĸȺֳdzͬĵʶ˵ʵݽʡһҲܹջ˹趨ĵѧӦġݽ¡Ӧ漰ġʵ⡱⡱ԼȨ⡱ΪӦ۵ǡݽ¡ݽķʽǹҮ˵ĵѧѵĵط
    µݽǡĴͳʵݽһ棬ݽǡͣ͡Ҫڲҵµ¡ϸϱǸΪͳϸϱɶ˹ͬάֵĹ淶ڵڶۣġʷԡǰ޷䱻ضĴͳӦӶ˫żȻԾġ塪ᡱŹϵݽĶԴÿһŵֽŹϵԼÿһΪ⻯䡰塪ᡱŹϵѰ塱ŬŬĻ족ΪĻ塱IJš

    ĸ岻ܳȫġ塪ᡱŹϵʼҲĸᱻΪ(縥±µġͼɡ)屻ضĴͳ֮ϳþѾ˵ʱᴩһϵʷϵġ⡱ʷָʾʲԻΪʷǢദЩķ˼һӽ硱֮ڣӽ硱ࡰ塱ʷġЩʷϵľ⹹ɸڵġͳͳҪֻɫ£ض巢ڵг嶯Ҫѡɫףһ֡塪ᡱŹϵˡҪô涨ķװɫӶڳڽ淶ڻʶȥ3Ҫôе桱ĺӶֽŹϵ⻯ǡΪʲô?Ϊ˺ġ桱?ֻҵ壬е桱ĺֳġ˵(humanism)ԴͳкϣǡһʽķʱǣһķDZԵغ? µģڡΪĴڣòͨȡ?һ)ʵһԡBeing revealed via being Cancled

    ⻯塪ᡱŹϵʱܿҵµ壬Ǵ壬йѧ塣ĸһ(Ϊ˾ûС塱)ͨԽճ(塪Źϵ)Ҫ½ʹͳľΪ塣͵硰ϵضͥÿÿʱظͲ⣬ÿһμͥΣ¶Իϵ½ͣµĽҲʹԭеĻϵú壬Ǵʹ˫Լ(ӡ⡱ݱ䵽Ǻ⡱)ҲԻϵ½ʹڽ̹淶ϵΣ¶ѰңҲ嵼¸¿һԱĹϵǴ˸ӸΣ֮еĸDzòһϵеĽŹϵDzòѰ;DzòΪķṩµ塣ΪṩһͨʵѧصĴѧ

    ͨύ(ʹҺʶƫ봫ͳΪȷʵij)ӰĸԴͳľΪĽ͡ͳǷı䣬ͳṩĵ˵Ƿı䣬ͨͳϰԺ͵ʶĸĵǷı䡣

    ܹ֮Ӱĸ壬Ϊһиͨ⡱Ŵͳ飬ַľʹø֮⡭֪ɿܣʹá塱ij(һͬ巴ΪûԵġ塱û)һijµġ塱ij(Ϊ塱)ʶоռˡҡһ֡һ屻ġҡʹ÷һԵĸ֮ĽһøסһձȨİҪȸϸȨκİ˸ȡѡȨ塣е⣬˵ǡݽġ

    µݽԵݽĽЩݽͨύ(Ϊ)ľ״̬ʵֵġгζŵĻϵ(ᷢչij)ǵݽݽһҪһ棬Ҫġձһԡ(硰Ρ)ڽгչһԵȺȥӶﵽĹġáڸӹȺʵ˵г򷴹ǿԺ͵µձԭbһ̣͹Ŀеݽºݽԡ
    塢

    Үġݽ¡ѧȱ١ѧIJ䣬Իش𡰵´ͳݱ?һش⡣ʵϣҮ˸ǽȺشĻ͵´ͳݱ⡡ͬ⡰塱Ȼܵѧ粼ϵ 

    ׵ݽ۱봦崴ԺȺ崫ͳ֮ĽŹϵֽŹϵҲǴѧעĺ⡣ǽڴѧ˼ԹҮ˵ѧԲ䣬ͳƪµ

    κεѧֻҪһ̶Ͻԡ˵Ͳò֪⡣½ǡ֪ıҪǰᡣ¸׷ʵǡ֪֮Ϊ⡱ǰᡣʵѧ֪֮Ϊɡ˹ύṩˡ֪ġ֪ۡӶԡ⡱ѧֳ̽ͼ˹Ľ۲ͳһݽĵѧʶۡ

    һֱΪģյݽʶۺ͹Ү˵ݽѧʵִѧѧѧ͹˹ĽһµĵطЩѧǿŵģݱģǿʽġҲΪƪԼǰļƪΪۺЩŬ塣رǵע⵽Ŀǰѧ˵УгụӦֻۣһ֡ԭҲܼ򵥣г䱾ʶǽģŵģݽġڽϵȨֺ͡ūŹϵҲΪŬҪȥתĹϵͨѰµ壬ǵĵʶݱ䡣ǶȿҲΪƪµǡгϵµĵݽ

    гҪһ»վݽµϣһ֧гϵΪչһгϽʾġȨ־

    ϣһǿվ¿ƪָĵһĵһϣǵЧѧγɹҮ˵ġչ򡱵гõġΪҮˡչ򣬡ʷԭ͡ŷʱ塭ǴŷĴͳȻչģһзŷ޴ͳԣֻǡʷżȻضĴͳʷϵСֻżȻ²ŽԺ͵µݽгӦķȥϣͬⲼ϶ԹҮ˵ġͳۡͳҿԱǸı䡣ͨǵĴͳ²ʹﵽһµľϵУӶʹԺ͵µݽ롰չӦӦǣʵҲѾǣгЩͬгļѧѧߵְܡ
    ע͢Ӧָڸ(GWFHegel)ġִԡһ̶ϱֳ˵ĵһˡӴͳȨСȡ(disenchantment)ֻʶ(consciousness)žԾ(дġSpirit)鷵׶֮һڸġִԡ¿˺ķġִԡ֮ͬǰȻΪ񡱱һλáҪΪʧŷҵһڽ̡Τ(MWeber)ϲһλѧҡƺӲӱ۽Ƕ˼»⡣ڳġǴѧǶģȻӱ۵˼ڵڶеĵһϣֵָйִҵĴʮһĹ۵㡣ǵĻġǵŬʾй˼ͼͨҪĻͳ̵ģҵģԼ̵ģӶܹΪµйתҵµĵ»ϣǵǺڸʽģۺϵģ̬չġվڵڶĵڶϵй˼ǵĴ³ѸɵӰ죬ԴͳСϣΪë? ?˵ĺ³Ѹǡͨġ)ġĻ˼Ҳһ
    ڲϵͼ(GTullock)60һµļ㡷(Calcaulus of Consent)ͼгģʽΪҿӦĵһµĵһDzڵѾֳԵġ¹ػ70дġɵ޶ȡ(The Limits of Liberty)ijעҮ˹ֹ۵Ŵͳ¿١ڲϺڵֵ¹ػǿҵѾԣǰ۵׷ߵμJames BuchananChoosing What to Choosepp123135Journal oflnstitutional and Theoretical Economics l501(1994)BrunoFreyMoral and lnstitutional ConstraintsCommentpp136141Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 1501 (1994)Ұѿµġʲô?(What ls Enlightenment?)ִĵһѧ˵ܰչ˹(JHabermas)Ŀڸǿˡִԡ˵ĵһˡͬ? ˹ԺڸΪִΣ۵ĿʼΪʶʱڲġ»ΣIJǿ£ǺڸܲμJurgen HabennasPhilosophical Discourse of ModernityMIT Press1987Ӧָ̫(AMcIntyre)۵һɡThree Rival Versions of Moral EnquiryLoodonDuckWorth1990μFHayekThe Fatal Conceit, University of Chicago Press1988ҮⱾĵһбʾɲ(KPopper)Ĺڡݽԡѧݽʶ(evo1uttonary epistemology)ӦһչһֱΪ֮ŬĹڡݽ¡ѧ(evo1utionary morality)ڡҮչ˼ۡ(۴ԡڶļ)нһ֤Ү˹ݽµ˼ʵִѧѧ͹˹ġύۡͨһ֮ȻĹڡݽ¡ѧѾں̶ܴƫ˹Ү˵ѧ˵Ϊ粼ģҮ˶ԴͳµĹֹ̬ȺܿʹͬĵѧһȻϣҵΪڡݽ¡ѧΪϾڹҮ˼봫ͳзչģҮάչ򡱵˼Żһԡ
    ߲μҵġҮչ˼(ƪ)(۴ԡԼھѧѧ֮)ҳ226227йѧ1996)μ˹ǰעܣLecture 6
    μAlan GewirthReason and MoralityUniversity of Chicago Press1978Chapter 4Section7
    μPeter Sjngered. Oxford Readers: Ethics, Part IISection B. Oxford University Press1994
    [11]ڸԭӢ뱾ģDuty for dutys sake is an empty fomula that can give no guidance until it is fi11ed with substantive ethical principles , which must come from somewhere else
    [12]μAgnes HellerGeneral Ethics Chapter lOxfordBasil Blackwell1988
    [13] μGeorge Herbert Mead, Mind, Self and Society ,University of Chicago Press1934p89
    [14]μRobert NozickThe Examined Life: Philosophical Meditations, Chapter l5Simon  Schuster1989ꣻPhilosophical Explanationspp.2770Havard University Press, 1981ꡣ
    [15]Դѧϣ¡͡һ¡ǰ(moral)Դġmora1isҲġmos͡customĽϡ(ethic)ġethiceתԴϣġethosִѧߣ纣գʻʹãǸϸµѧΪ¡ŷ޻еĸձڸĸڴϵϸǣ¡иǿҵġ淶򣺵᷽壻ϣĵԭڡʡƷ񡱣ɫȵȸ巽塣 [16]μڡԼѧ塱жԴ֤йѧ()199611¡
    [17]ʼǵϸۺӢԭļ¼ע[16]ҵµĸ¼С
    [18]μҷ(о)19947µ¡÷չ۵½չ˼¼ҵļھѧѧ֮䡷йѧ磬1996ꡣ
    [19]μΪʮһ͡д¡ʱʵʡ¼ҵļ÷չƶȴ¡ϺϺ磬1995ꡣ
    [20]μΪод¡֪ʶԣרҵ봫ͳҵļھѧѧ֮䡷йѧ磬1996ꡣ
    ⿵´ͳеĵѧ޶˹(JRawls)ͻ˹ѧǿԻӴͳеĵѧ(C. Darwin)ġ¸еԴĦ(GJMoore)۵ġʶֱ塱(intuitionism)ۣǿľ˵ġʶľֱӵϵ