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δ֪ ԴӦд ʱ2005-12-29¹վ

ժҪ Ĺ2070ض·չ㷺ӰԼ˶ΪĸԼоṩ˲ͬҰֵ÷˼еȱݣֵƫģгƵţ˽ĻĹ˿ȡ21͹ؽҪעĹԣעᡢгĻƫ塣


   ؼʡ  ˼


   һ  


   1980ѳΪۻʯʵָϡѧɭ³ķԣٷ¹˶ۼʵչ֮Ϊ봫ͳ;;Լ;о;(rosenbloom,1998,p.20)ͬʱԹѧ֮չ˾޴Ӱ졣ѧ߹˹ķ࣬ѧּ֪Ȥ飭Կѧ(empirical analytical science)ʷԿѧ(historical-hermeneutical)ԼȡĿѧ(critically oriented science)ĵּȤڷ¹ΪһԼʵںֵ̽Ļϵ(context)Է˼


    ֮ں


   1980Ժ󲿷ַң˴ģ˶һ˶Բͬijƺţ(managerialism)гΪĹ(market-based public administration)ҵ(entrepreneurial government)ɫʵƣ(new right)(gray,1993)(new governance)Ƹ죬ȴͬ󣬼ͳѾ̬гΪģʽȡΪֳµĵ䷶(new paradigm)(owen e.hughes,1998,p.1-4)ôֹŵĹ¹ʲôںأoecdú뷢չ֯Ľ綨չֵĸĹͬں¼棺


   1ҵIJã


   2Լ˿͵ǿ


   3ϵڵгԼܵ루oecd199019931995ѧɭ˹ͼ(ronson & stewart,1994,p14-15)Ϊ1Ϊ˿ͣǿ˿͵ļֵ2г׼гľƣ3Լ˽ķΧ4ߵĽɫӹߵĽɫз5ԼԼõӣ6гⶨЧĿꣻ7Թʡ


   ѧߺ(hood,1991)رɳҪ㣬Ϊ¹Ϊ


   1 ڹ֮зָרҵʾùԼ


   2 ĿȷЧܹԲ


   3 رǿƣʵʵijɹӳ򣻣4 ֽת䡣ֽ(disaggregation)˼͸СĻģIJָ


   5 תΪľԣ


   6 ˽̬ĹΪ


   7 ԴϵĿԼ


   ۺʵеĹ¼ĻţһоĽڽḶ́ڶΪʵʽӦøгƣṩѵIJƷͬʱг£һӦͬҵӹĻȡþѣһҲҪ֯оггƵҲӦǿ˿͵(customer driven)ĹģӦð""ĽɫҪְӦλȷ빫ƻɱ˳ṩȴҪԼִ壬ӦƶɰĹյĹӦıȥΨĹг˿ԼɹĴɣŵĹԱӦȨ(empowered)ԳַӴⲢͶ빤ߣĻӦܳԵġµġҵҾķչ


    ʷ


   ڷԴ뷢չʱѧ߲(pollitt,1990)ָĺ˼룬һʶ̬뾭龳ĸı䣬ΪܵĹ۵㣬ʵƶȷ¹Ƕɵģ¼ΪҪ1 ģɫԼ֮ڶսԺڸӹƶ£ȨţְܷΧĽɫΪϹ֮͸ƸԤԵĹƺͱԵĹƣһͶԴṩһΪ֧֧ȡ˰Ҳ¾þ½ڵIJڴ£ܵԽԽ˹ԣ棺һΪĹģ̫󣬶˹ϡԴķΧ˹Ļṩ滯ãµķΪ͸ṩȻƽӹЧʡ


   2 ѹҵҳҵķչÿ븺ӴתԲ֧ϿԤ;ã˥ˡʧҵʵγΡõIJȶһ棬ʾõɻɵľѹ𽥼Ӿ磬Ըɾ޴ĸĸѹδٽھõķչʡʩɱʾȻΪִٵĺĿ⡣ڴ£˼ĸԻѹ׷ҾسΪһҪԡ


   3 ԵŹҵͿƼչͬʱҲ⣬˿⡢л⡢ΰ⡢⡢߱⡢ʧҵ⡢⡢⡢⡢ͨ⡢⡭ɵδµֲϳ֡ٵĹĸԡԺͶԪԻ(ungovernability)ӡһ棬渴ӵ⣬ͳʵ֮У֮ϵıءԼƶȵīس¹桢Ρ硢Ƚڡ¡ܣ翭(g.e.caiden,1991,p.1)ԣܶңɷƵ⣬(administrative arrogance)Ч(ineffectiveness)Ч(inefficiency)۹(administrative imperialism)ڶΣʹĴڳ˺ϷΣڴ£ĸĺʢرùعᡢгĺСְܳΪһɳơ


   4 ѧ˵뱣ʶ̬ľ޴Ӱij̶ֳ""һʶ̬˶粨ԣ˼ʱһֿɽܵ档207080𣬾бִɵ60ʢеḣҺҪȱ㣬Ԫʢʹ֧ӣϵƫԼеԴ·"Ԥ"ϵ¢̬ģʽŵĽвɣͬʱҵҵ֮ţѰȵʩȱԣ֧ӻծų˽֮ɳǿ֮ʧгΪءɵ߶ԣѹṩһֱǩ˽֮УοƿɻǿԤרҵԽ͡ԱĹԼ뾺Եļܹ߹Чʡʶ̬£гҵггĽ֮Ϊһֲɵѡ


   ġ ķ˼


   еĹ壬Դ۽ʵʼǡѧߺΪһûʵں?quot;"ʵϲûиıκζĹ۵㣬Թ˺ͬʱڽͳɱּ棬Ҳû̫ЧΪ"ƿµģĹȴǾɵ"Ϊһʱ֮(cargo cult)(hood,1991,)˿һµĵ䷶δķ档ҿеĹ壬ۺѧ˵һѰ(good governance)һŬij̶ֳϷӳԼṫЧʵĺڴźʹⲻܲ˵ǼԵġǣеĹ壬˵һֵ䷶תƣ˵һ֮ԹĹţҲһ"Ը"ӷ˼еĹ۵֮ҲȱݡҿȱҪ¼棺


   1 ʶƫĹۻҪԹѡ(public choice theory)ίУ(principal agent theory)Լ׳ɱ(transaction cost theory)¹ŵ侭ѧ(the neoclassical theory)м¹ŵ侭ѧԵļ裬Ϊ1ж2жǻġթġҷġĺ˵ģ3ּ裬ж߲ܱΡȻԮ¹ŵ侭ѧԼ裬ܲä㣬ȣĻضԵĹơ˵¿ܻȽͻκụ֮ԭӻĸˣصִʱڻ漰شǿ¡˶⣬ͬԡš̡¡Ļͬ˵ΪƵģ⣬ͬ˵Ǹӵģ˵ҪҲǶģҪǵǽ˽ۼٶʱͻ?quot;ϰɲ"󣬼ʧȥ˶˽ľʵĵжȣ𽥽""̬ȣ˴ٽµҪҲ͹ΣΪ۲ʵķӳҲߵۼķȥԼ£Ҳʧȥ˴ڵļֵݣʵϣõĹʮҪġ


   2µĹֵƫĺ͹̵Եɥʧ忴ʩĻֵ"e "(economy)Ч(efficiency)Ч(effeteness)ҲǿҵֵԺ͹(instrument rationality)Ȼʵϣ׷ҪԪģʱڳͻĶԪֵʡڱΪʯǿ׷ȨȨϡṫ桢εȶԪֵġǿЧʺ͹Ե׷ʹʡԼĸֵĿģ䰫Ϊִ֮ߣ𹫹μֵΣҲ޷ʵϢʹѧҵ˹(roberts denhardt,1993)ΪЧΪĹֻǹעɼȶĿֶΣԶĿıĹУҲڹµжʹԽԽԶֵֻ֣ǽƽϼɱΪеĹߣȫɥʧΪϵж"ϵ"(moral content)ѧ͸(bellone and goerl, 1992,131-132)ָгΪĹμֵ֮ųͻ?autonomy vs accountability)Զ빫(personal vision vs citizen participation)빫(secrecy vs openness)ճе빫Ƶļ໤(risk-taking vs stewardship of public good)֮ijͻȷеġҲ̩ͬ(terry,1998)Ĺ۵㣬ɹѡۣ۵ȷĹ"ֵ"ġִԻϷԱԳеΣʵļֵǰᡣ


   3гͶгܵIJݹԷϵĸΪΪٶģ֤гЧʵƶȡȨϵɢҲöɣȱԼල򣬼ûгƺ⣬ĹԱ˹棬רע׷棬ǹЧʵ¡ŹƻӦЧʵгṩְܣʹСȻг壨market fundamentalismġͲ߼ġȣгĹֳݺгȱݡѧʵϲ̸гõƣѧгܵʧ(market failure)Բ빫߽г趨ϵִЩߣȨ棬гʧ⣬ڵĿġ֯ѧ(organizational economics)ӽ׳ɱ룬˽ȫгƣչгȨ֮ϵԼȨĽƲȨȷֹߣʾгȨı󣬴ҪгҲ˹žȫгṹIJ졣ڹ˽žԣűϵIJͬ繫ŲƷIJɷָ(indivisibility)IJ߻ǹơ޷ָǻģӴĹģöĶԣ߾ǿԣжռԣгĸż(barriers to entry)۸ϵͳ֮ڵȡɴˣƣǴںܴƵġҲ˵гܵƣгܱƣ޷г޷еĹٶгʵг;ҪжһӪ(privatization)ǩԼ(contracting out)ЧΣһδɿ϶⡣"ھгϣ˽˹˾ͨЧʣƾƶûоҲûг˽֯ЧʣDzʵʵ뷨"(dohahue, 1989, p.222)ʵϣгṩϣͬʱҲṩ繫ɥʧáѰ⡢Ȩ̰۵ȡгţԶDzǡġڴ˹"ȫʱΣ"һΪ"ггʽгһҪĽɫжԿṹΣ""εIJٽг壬г̧ͷֻعʹʧ顣ȫʱȱ֮һгƺ󶯻͸ԭӦóֵĻΧ֮"ֵ˼ͬ粼¡ԣ"г⿴֣вɻɵԲȷǣ浽ҸԼֹֽ̬ȵĿʵ"¡ˣ2000뱾p.5


   4˽ѧϰ֮ҽ⹹빫˽֮ĹһҪڣ֮˽ŵĹڲ죬һֿԽ˽龰һ(generic management)ػ˽Ӫش¹ߣҪƵĹ֪ʶܡ빤ߣ԰ͬܣƻߡ֯쵼ͨƣķӣӶЧṩƻ?quot;ҵ"Ϊľ֧Ŀȫ˽ŵļֵĻṹ̡죬ҽ⹹(deconstruction)Ӧóϣ˽֮ȷԵģ֪ʶܡ໥ѧϰȻ˽˹б֮졣ѧʦ߶1948дֹ˽ͨԺ˹֮Դ֮""(waldo,1948:p.159-191)ɭ(allison,1980)侭ʾ˹˽֮вҪͬҪIJϲͬСյ(ott,hyde,1991)Ҳָҵ빫вͬʶ̬Ͳֵ֮ͬɭ³ķ(rosenbloom, 1998)ӹȨ桢ɹȷ˶֮ͬҿ˽˹Ǵھ޴IJģֲڣг˽桢ԼɡṫЧȶ෽档򵥶ԣڱΪͨԴʵĻչֹ̡֮˽˹ͬǡǡɥʧ˹еɫɥʧӦе塣


   5ǡ"˿"еĹ壬˿ͶҵҪԱΪĹϵǿ˿(customer satisfied)ΪʩĿ꣬Ϊ˿͵ʹֱӶԹ˿͸ɹ˿ѡṩߣųصIJԤIJͬṩѡԹ˿ΪIJܷϴڵ󣬶ܴɹƽ(osborn and gaebler, 1992: 181-186)ǣ˿͵ĹһֵûɵIJȣеĽɫDZȽϸӵģǹĽߣǶҪṩ񣻹ǹĺϻ˻ߣΪԹļЧӰ죻ǹļලߣμලͬ˰ijеߡĶ˿ͣ޷ȫ⹫Ľɫʹ֮Ĺϵȫɫҡɭ(g. federickson, 1997)ԣ""(owner)ǹ˿ͣ""ԣԾΪΣĵλȻ˿ϵijǸĽǺõģѱԽԪĿ꣬ΪڿҪķΧ൱㷺ڶԪĿ꾭ֳͻԴ£ÿһλ˿ͣ˿ӵѣÿһǶȿǣÿһλ˿͵ԽӣǷṩߣҲǹߣ£ƹijЩ󣬲Ա֤Ĵڣʵϣ޷ǹһǺϷģĽǹϷ֮ڴģĶռԻ¢ԣȱѹִ۽Ϊ˿ͻˣԷӹ˿͵ͼŵ㡣ȷĻϵмɲɵݻĽ֮ڽ֮ԻƣʹԼȷȨ


   塢 ؽ֮ʵ֮˼


   ӦóϹ֮壬ڹ֮ʵṩһӽǡΣڹԣԪӽǵ͸ġȻǷЩѧģ䷶(paradigm)תƣһֵûɵ⡣ѧȫ(jong ,j 1994)Ϊѧ䷶Чľ?quot;ܹ"(conceptual framework)ӦЧǷȫжϡµ䷶ȡɵ䷶µ䷶Чͽ(puzzle solutions)Ȼ̸۹һֵ䷶Ϊʱ磬ʵ(before the fact)ĵ䷶֧߻š⣬Ϊһֵ䷶׽"г""С""˿͵""Ч"ҵΪһ־Եһ"г"Ť˹ʡӦϣÿһʱÿһʱӦʱΡáĻ֮Ǩչ֮ͬۺѧ˵Ӧʱķչչתʱ֮ҪؽͷչġͨԹԷ˼Ϊ֮ؽδʮһͣҪע˼¼⣺


   1 ӦΪһḶ́Ϊһֹ̣


   2 Ӧڹеԣǿг"նĹ"


   3 Ӧע乫ԣ⹫ɥʧ


   4 Ӧᡢ˽˲š빫ĻǶ˼⣬֮˼


   5 ӦԽ""""ʶ̬չΪԵ۵㣻


   6 ȻҪҵѧϰɲأûбҪ"ҽ⹹"ڷҵĵ·ҪߣѧϰҵͬʱӦ龰֮ԣ


   7 ӦԹҪΪʵ֮裻


   8 Ҫӹϵ磬Ҫӹ֪ԣ9 ֮оҪɿƼϵ;ⵥһӽǴä㡣ǧǰйܴʥν"½֪֮Ϊ˹ӣ֪֮Ϊƣ˹ҲɣΣ㣬ͣǰ棬ʥ˴Ϊ֮£в֮?quot;ν"ԼǹãԷйʳ"Թ֮ʵԣνԡ


   Ҫοףallison,g.t., 1980 ,public and private management : are they fundamentally alike in all unimportant respects? omp document 127-52-1,pp.27-38.barzelay,michael ,1992, breaking through bureaucracy : a new vision for managing in government , university of california pressbellone,c.j. and goerl, 1992, reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy,par,vol.52,no.2bozeman and straussman ,1990, public management strategies ,jossey-basscaiden,g e. 1992 , administrative reform comes of age ,walter de gruyterdenhardt,r.b.,1993, theory of public organization. brooks/cole.farnham ,d and horton, 1996,managing the new public service ,macmillanflynn,n.,1997 ,public sector management, prentice-hall.frederickson,h.g.,1997,the spirit of public administration , jossey-bassgoodsell,c.t.1993, reinvent government or rediscover it? par,vol 53.gray,j., 1993, beyond the new right ,routledgehenry,n,1999,public administration and public affairs,prentice-hallhood ,c.,1991,a public management for all seasons? public administration,69,pp.3-19hughes,o.e.,1998, public management and administration, st.martin''s pressingraham,p.g.,1994,new paradigms for government, jossey-bassjun,jong,1994 ,philosophy of administration, daeyoung moonhwa internationoecd,1990,1991,public management developments, paris: oecdosborne, david and gaebler, ted,1992 reinventing government: how the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector reading,ma: addison-wesleyott, j. steven, hyde, albert c. and shafritz, jay m.1991, public management :the essential readings, chicago:lyceum books/nelson hallpeters,g.,1996, the future of governing ,university of kansaspollitt, 1990, managerialism and the public services, basil black-wellrainey,hal g.1991,understanding and managing public organisations ,jossey-bassranson,s. and stewart,1994 management for public domain ,st.martin''s pressrosenbloom,d,1998, public administration ,mcgraw-hillterry,l.,1998,administrative leadership, neo-management and the public management movement ,par,vol.58,no.4waldo,d.1948, the administrative state, holmes and meier publisherswamsley,g.l.andwolf,1996, refounding democratic public administration,sage